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CompTIA Network+ Certification Study Guide, Fourth Edition. Pages CompTIA and A+ are registered trademarks of Computing Technology Industry. CompTIA Network+. The CompTIA Network+ (N) certification exam will test to determine that . print and an interactive PDF on the DVD. Review these. The CompTIA Network+ certification is an internationally recognized validation of the The CompTIA Network+ exam is accredited by the American National.
External modems are connected to the back of the system board via a RS serial connection. The modem contains an RJ connection that is used to plug in the telephone line. Modems have different transmission modes as follows: Simplex - Signals can be passed in one direction only.
Half Duplex - Half duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction, but not in both simultaneously. Half-duplex modems can work in full-duplex mode. Full Duplex - Full duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction simultaneously. Modems can also be classified by their speed which is measured by the BAUD rate. One baud is one electronic state change per second.
Since a single state change can involve more than a single bit of data, the Bits Per Second BPS unit of measurement has replaced it as a better expression of data transmission speed. Common modem speeds are V. Network Interface Card - A Network Interface Card, often abbreviated as NIC, is an expansion board you insert into a computer so the computer can be connected to a network.
Most NICs are designed for a particular type of network, protocol and media, although some can serve multiple networks.
Media Converters - simple networking devices that make it possible to connect two dissimilar media types such as twisted pair with fiber optic cabling. They were introduced to the industry nearly two decades ago, and are important in interconnecting fiber optic cabling-based systems with existing copper-based, structured cabling systems.
They are also used in MAN access and data transport services to enterprise customers. Media converter types range from small standalone devices and PC card converters to high port-density chassis systems that offer many advanced features for network management.
Switch - A switch is a network device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments and ensures that data goes straight from its origin to its proper destination.
Switches remember the address of every node on the network, and anticipate where data needs to go. A switch only operates with the computers on the same LAN.
This reduces competition for bandwidth between devices on the network. It isn't smart enough to send data out to the internet, or across a WAN. These functions require a router.
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Bridge - Functions the same as a repeater, but can also divide a network in order to reduce traffic problems. A bridge can also connect unlike network segments ie. Bridges create routing tables based on the source address. If the bridge can't find the source address it will forward the packets to all segments.
Bridging methods: Transparent - Only one bridge is used. Source-Route - Bridging address tables are stored on each PC on the network Spanning Tree - Prevents looping where there exists more than one path between segments Wireless Access Point - A Wireless Access Point is a radio frequency transceiver which allows your wireless devices to connect to a network.
The WAP usually connects to a wired network, and can relay data between the wireless devices such as computers or printers and wired devices on the network. A wireless access point will support up to 32 wireless devices.
The range of the wireless signal depends greatly on obstructions such as walls. For more information about wireless standards, see domain 1. Router - Functioning at the network later of the OSI model, a router is similar to a switch, but it can also connect different logical networks or subnets and enable traffic that is destined for the networks on the other side of the router to pass through.
Routers create or maintain a table of the available routes and can be configured to use various routing protocols to determine the best route for a given data packet. Routers can connect networks that use disimilar protocols.
Routers also typically provide improved security functions over a switch. Firewall - Either a hardware or software entity or a combination of both that protects a network by stopping network traffic from passing through it. In most cases, a firewall is placed on the network to allow all internal traffic to leave the network email to the outside world, web access, etc.
This is achieved by granting and denying access to resources based on a set of configurable rules. A DHCP server prevents the assignment of duplicate IP addresses to clients and reduces administrative effort in network configuration.
The routing is normally as quick as switching at wirespeed. Some switches can use up to OSI layer 7 packet information; they are called layer switches, content-switches, web-switches or application-switches.
Content Switch - The main function of a content switch is to inspect the network data that it receives so that it can decide where on the network that data or request needs to be forwarded to. Once this is determined the data is sent to the appropriate server which can handle the data. In most cases the switch looks to see what type of application or software the request is targeted at. It does this by looking to see what port the requests is directed at.
For example if the data is targeted at an ftp port then the request will be sent to an ftp sever.
The main benefit of this approach is that the switch acts as a load balancer as it can balance data or requests across the different type of application servers used by the business. A second major function that this type of switch can perform is to look at the incoming requests and see which websites are targeted. This is important for large enterprises or hosting companies. If for example a web hosting company was hosting several thousand websites the switch could direct requests to the specific servers that the websites are running on.
These devices tend to be very expensive. IDS is a passive system that gives alerts when something suspicious is detected and logs the events into a database for reporting.
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It can stop the attack by terminating the network connection or user session originating the attack, by blocking access to the target from the user account, IP address, or other attribute associated with that attacker, or by blocking all access to the targeted host, service, or application. Vendors are increasingly combining the two technologies into a single box, now referred to as IDPS.
These devices are used with, not instead of, a firewall. Load balancing is used to distribute workloads evenly across two or more computers, network links, CPUs, hard drives, or other resources, in order to get optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload.
Using multiple components with load balancing, instead of a single component, may increase reliability through redundancy.
As an example, Google receives many, many more search requests than a single server could handle, so they distribute the requests across a massive array of servers. Mutlifunction Network Devices - As you might guess, multifunction network devices combine the function of individual devices into a single unit.
An example is wireless access points which often include one or more of the following: firewall, DHCP server, wireless access point, switch, gateway, and router. The internet is based on numerical IP addresses, but we use domain names because they are easier to remember.
DNS is the service that looks up the IP address for a domain name allowing a connection to be made. This process is very similar to calling information. You call them with a name, they check their database and give you the phone number.
Bandwidth Shaper - Describes the mechanisms used to control bandwidth usage on the network. Bandwidth shaping is typically done using software installed on a network server. From this server, administrators can control who uses bandwidth, for what, and when. Bandwidth shaping establishes priorities to data traveling to and from the Internet and within the network.
A bandwidth shaper essentially performs two key functions: monitoring and shaping. Monitoring includes identifying where bandwidth usage is high and at what time of day. After that information is obtained, administrators can customize or shape bandwidth usage for the best needs of the network. I am unaware why CompTIA listed this in the "network devices" section of their objectives, but bandwidth shapers are typically software.
Proxy Server - A proxy server acts as a middle-man between clients and the Internet providing security, administrative control, and caching services.
When a user makes a request for an internet service and it passes filtering requirements, the proxy server looks in its local cache of previously downloaded web pages. If the item is found in cache, the proxy server forwards it to the client. This reduces bandwidth through the gateway. If the page is not in the cache, the proxy server will request the page from the appropriate server.
Nowadays, the functions of proxy servers are often built into firewalls.
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All they really do is interface between a 56K, T1, or T3 line and serial interface typically a V. Standard versions of PoE specify category 5 cable or higher. Power can come from a power supply within a PoE-enabled networking device such as an Ethernet switch or from a device built for "injecting" power onto the Ethernet cabling.
All of these require more power than USB offers and very often must be powered over longer runs of cable than USB permits. Spanning Tree Protocol - Spanning Tree is one of three bridging methods a network administrator can use. The simplest method is transparent bridging, where only one bridge or switch exists on the network. The next is Source-Route, in which bridging address tables are stored on each PC on the network.
VLAN - A broadcast domain is normally created by the router. This allows a virtual network, independent of physical location to be created. Trunk links provide VLAN identification for frames traveling between switches. Port Mirroring - Used on a network switch to send a copy of network packets seen on one switch port or an entire VLAN to a network monitoring connection on another switch port. This is commonly used for network appliances that require monitoring of network traffic, such as an intrusion-detection system.
The authentication server validates each client connected to a switch port before making available any services offered by the switch or the LAN. With respect to peer to peer networks, you can use the Network Tasks pane to Create a New Connection, Set up a Home or small office network as well as change the Windows Firewall settings and view available wireless networks.
On the General tab you can configure the specific hardware settings parameters, drivers, etc as well as the protocols e. Client for Microsoft Networks. Additionally, you can install services from this screen as well e. Virtual Machine Network Service. The Wireless Networks tab will show you the available networks and allow you to configure preference for each of the networks encountered.
By correctly placing the devices, users will not generally experience signal loss of their connection to the network. It is important to understand that there are many things that affect the wireless access point signal with respect to broadcast and receiving strength that include the construction and architecture of the building where the devices are distributed as well as general disruption of the frequency range that the access points operate on by other devices e.
Consideration needs to be given to what type of obstructions may be currently in the way physical fire breaks in between walls; metal superstructure, etc as well as future plans to subdivide offices. Electrical motors and other higher current carrying lines need to be considered as well to keep interference to a minimum.
It is more work and it costs more in time money and effort to connect the WAPs using wired connections back to a switch or a router but it greatly reduces the potential connectively loss on the network; the loss of a single WAP where the WAPs are wired back results in only impacting the users of that one WAP instead of all WAPs up and downstream.
This point onto the network will allow the client device to configure itself with the necessary encryption if required and any other network required settings or else risk being defaulted off the network. Disabled simply means that everything is passed as clear text. Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP is the lowest form of the types of encryption available and is generally only used today to allow legacy devices that cannot handle more robust encryption protocols to gain somewhat secured access to the network.
WEP has been challenged and defeated for a number of years mainly due to the increase in computing power and the fact that the keys are alphanumeric or hexadecimal characters that are configured in 40 bit, 64 bit, bit, bit and bit strength.
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Temporal Key Integrity Protocol TKIP is used in WPA to encrypt the authentication and encryption information that was initially passed on the wire in clear text before a network node could secure its communications on the network.
The announcement signal that is sent out is called the beacon. Verifying Installation - the process that is outlined for making sure that all the settings needed to connect a network node to the wireless device. The best practice steps generally include on initial installation of the Wireless Access Point WAP to do so without any security to verify that a client can get on the network. Once that is successful you would then incorporate the security protocol that you wanted to use and to make sure the client can operate on the network again.
Once this is successfully done it is assumed all other network nodes would be able to successfully repeat the same steps to access the network securely and with the traffic encrypted. Domain 4. Each layer has a different responsibility, and all the layers work together to provide network data communication. Layer Description Application Represents user applications, such as software for file transfers, database access, and e-mail.
It handles general network access, flow control, and error recovery. Provides a consistent neutral interface for software to access the network and advertises the computers resources to the network. Presentation Determines data exchange formats and translates specific files from the Application layer format into a commonly recognized data format.
It provides protocol conversion, data translation, encryption, character-set conversion, and graphics-command expansion.
Session Handles security and name recognition to enable two applications on different computers to communicate over the network. Manages dialogs between computers by using simplex rare , half-duplex or full-duplex.
The phases involved in a session dialog are as follows: establishment, data-transfer and termination. Thank you so much for such quality Questions and Answers and Study Guides Almost all testking answers were present in my exam.
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