Pages · · MB · Downloads ·English Floyd Toole, a leading expert in the field of sound reproduction, explains how to design the best. Sound Reproduction. Loudspeakers and Rooms. Floyd E. Toole. AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON. NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN. Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and ByFloyd E. Toole DownloadPDF MB Read online.

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Read "Sound Reproduction The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms" by Floyd E. Toole available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today. Floyd Toole. PAPERS Loudspeakers and Rooms for Sound Reproduction—A Scientific Review* FLOYD E. TOOLE ([email protected]) Harman International . 6, June TOOLE PAPERS out the space [8], [9]. Download pdf. Floyd Toole, a leading expert in the field of sound reproduction, explains how to design the best possible listening experience for recording control rooms and.

Since loudspeakers can be mediocre in an infinite number of ways, this practice only guarantees that quality of the recording will be compromised when heard through good loudspeakers [1]. This is very counterproductive if we want to improve the quality and consistency of audio recording and reproduction.

Evidence of acoustical interactions has been well documented survey of professional recording studios where the same high-quality, factory calibrated monitored was installed [4]. Figure 2 shows the distribution of in-room responses measured at the primary listening location where the recordings are monitored and mixed. However, below 1 kHz, variation in the in-room response gets progressively much worse at lower frequencies. Below Hz, the in-room bass response can vary as much 25 dB among the different control rooms!

Evaluating Loudspeakers When the Recording is a Nuisance Variable Loudspeaker manufacturers are also trapped in the circle of confusion since music recordings are used by listening panels, audio reviewers, and consumers to ultimately judge the sound quality of the loudspeaker. The problem is that distortions in the recording cannot be easily separated from those produced by the loudspeaker.

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For example, a recording that is too bright can make a dull loudspeaker sound good, and an accurate loudspeaker sound too bright [5]. A review of the scientific literature on loudspeaker listening tests indicates that recordings are a serious nuisance variable that need to be carefully selected and controlled in the experimental design and analysis of test results.

At Harman International, we try to minimize loudspeaker-program interactions in our loudspeaker listening tests by using well-recorded programs that are equally sensitive to distortions found in loudspeakers.

Listeners become intimately familiar with the sonic idiosyncrasies of the different programs through extensive listener training and participation in formal tests.

One startling fact that Dr. Toole discusses is how badly flawed many of the monitoring systems are that were used in recording and mastering studios. If the audio systems that were used to mix and master the recordings had a poor frequency response, the sound engineers will be creating a sound mix that sounds good on that particular system, but when that sound mix is reproduced on a system that is far more accurate and linear, it can sound odd, since it was created with inherent compensations for an acceptable sound on a problematic sound system to begin with.

Hearing loss will most commonly occur as a reduction in high-frequency sensitivity, so sound engineers can end up boosting high-frequencies to compensate for their hearing, and that can leave the sound mix to be blazing hot in treble for those of us with good hearing.

This brings me to another point that Dr. OSHA noise exposure criteria actually allows for a substantial amount of hearing damage to occur. Just when I think I am becoming too cynical, I find out I am not cynical enough!


Something else that Dr. Toole explains that might be a bit provocative is the ineffectiveness of automated room correction equalization such as Audyssey outside of bass frequencies. He makes a very good case to this effect, and I am forced to agree with him.

Automated room correction routines are more of a band-aid for flawed loudspeakers rather than an improvement for typical room acoustics. Automated room correction can actually make things worse by attempting to correct for diffraction and acoustical interference effects which change with distance and angle, so in adjusting the frequency response for one position it can mess up the response for many other positions.

Its true usefulness is mostly only in bass frequencies, and even then it can only really help a single listening position unless multi-sub solutions have been involved to reduce seat-to-seat variations. Toole covers at length is the shortcomings of stereo sound compared to multi-channel formats. Stereo sound recordings can sound great, as so many of us know, but has some severe disadvantages versus 5.

In a typical surround sound mix, in addition to a soundstage with a stable center image regardless of listening position that the center speaker provides, the surround speakers can create a greater sense of a different acoustic environment than the room that they are situated in.

The psychoacoustic research that Dr. Toole discusses which explains the superior effects of multi-channel sound with respect to stereo and even quadraphonic sound is a fascinating read.

However, much of the music industry and many audio reproduction equipment manufacturers continue to adhere to two-channel sound despite its psychoacoustic inferiority.

It can get somewhat technical at points, but the author does a great job at making complex matters accessible and clear to a general readership. The book was written to make it readable in pieces based on the subject the reader is interested in, so some points that the author makes are revisited on multiple occasions. However, even those who read it from cover to cover will benefit from this slight repetition, since the book is dense with material, and a subject or point that is explained from multiple angles can be better understood by a non-specialist reader when that subject material is a bit complex.

An accompanying website is under construction. See also Francis Rumsey's talk about Spatial Audio below. Do you know your PSA? Lifetime risk is 1 in 6. PSA testing is the best way to find Prostate Cancer early. This may help save your life. A simple blood test can determine your PSA prostate specific antigen. Doctors recommend that your PSA be determined beginning at age 40 35 if you have a family history of Prostate Cancer or are African American.

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DIY Power amplifiers with extremely low distortion On his Neurochrome Audio website Tom Christiansen describes and offers solid-state and vacuum tube power amplifier designs, circuit boards and construction plans for DIY.

Power levels are well suited to my LX series speaker designs. Specifications are excellent but I have no listening experience with such low levels of distortion. Most importantly, the amplifier must not go into spurious oscillation, or DC output generation, or other misbehavior when internally voltage or current clipping. My active crossover, multi-channel loudspeakers put much less demand on the individual amplifiers, than the typical n-way passive crossover speakers that are common place, because each amplifier sees a benign load made up of the speaker cable, the voice coil impedance and the motional back emf.

But still, it would be rewarding to find out that even more realism can be gained from the LX's when Neurochrome amps are used.

Listen to the examples on the MEDIA page of my website as well as the samples that are available on the three compact discs that are linked to on the NEWS page of my website. My interest is in stereo upmixes which include distinct, stable separation of vocal and instrumental elements from the original mono source, i.

The attached file represents what I expect when I refer to a mono source upmixed to stereo. While I realize that there is a big difference between real-time upmixing from mono to stereo, as with the Voicode plug-in www.

I agree.

It is spatial distortion, which his upmix to pan-pot stereo removes to a high degree. To me pan-pot or multi-track mixes are still distortions of the spatial context in which natural sounds always exist.

Furthermore, listening to the examples I have the impression that new, unpleasant timbre distortions have been introduced. Without hearing the original mono version I cannot tell which form of distortion I would prefer to live with in order to enjoy the musical content of the old mono recordings. But the technology presented here is certainly a big step up from earlier attempts to add spaciousness to mono recordings.

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The problem is plasticity of the brain. Perception depends upon brain processes, which are not stable with time. The attentive part of the brain tires readily and falls for auto -suggestions. The subconscious part of the brain is always active in survival mode. In long-term listening it tends to brings up to my attention what it hears as unnatural.

But only if it is regularly refreshed with natural sounds. I find myself in agreement with Masciarotte's observations.

Ken C. Pohlmann - Principles of Digital Audio - McGraw-Hill, , 6th edition A very comprehensive and readable guide to everything digital in audio recording, processing, storage, transmission and playback. Blauert Ed. Much is about scientific understanding of how we hear and how to model it for further study. I am fascinated by implications to the design of loudspeakers for rendering a convincing auditory scene in acoustically small reverberant spaces. For example a few lines from chapter 1: Analysis and Synthesis of Auditory Scenes: "As we all know, the behavior of human beings is not guided directly by the acoustical signals that we provide them with, e.

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Consequently, an important demand of advanced communication technologies is to gain information on how human beings interpret acoustic signals on the background of their individual situational and background knowledge, i. Also, binaural hearing is able to suppress noise, reverberance and sound coloration to a certain extent. The discussion was honest and enlightening to both experts and audience.

The explanations could help audiophiles to understand some of the limitations involved in recording and reproduction, and to appreciate the work done and to make educated choices. View the discussion on YouTube. In addition to my observations about externalizing headphone reproduction, I want to emphasize that it is the change of the HRTF with head movement that strongly helps to externalize and not just the stationary HRTF by itself.

Note that all our senses - seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling - are primarily change detectors. Furthermore, externalization can be learned and retained at least for a while. Thus I can envision turning a smart-phone in combination with head turning and changing the ear signals as a brain training procedure for 3D listening to stationary HRTF encoded program material. Someone ought to try this. The 3D rendering over headphones without head tracking that I have heard so far produces far too much distance foreshortening to sound spatially realistic.

It was an exciting event.One startling fact that Dr. They also point to glossy headphones, earbuds and portable devices as contributors to the sad state of sound reproduction.

We sense the pressure waves of air acoustics generated by the loudspeakers as those pressure waves are shaped by the room and perceive it as sound psychoacoustics. The tapering notably improved the sense of space in recordings or it may be that the image is just unnaturally big without the tapering.

Furthermore, Dr. A free copy of this paper can be downloaded here [4] Aki V. Since loudspeakers can be mediocre in an infinite number of ways, this practice only guarantees that quality of the recording will be compromised when heard through good loudspeakers [1].

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